As a plethora of data emerges on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease, guidance on its application is needed. In this literature review and consensus statement, the authors recommend reactive TDM for all biologics, summarize concentration targets, and provide guidance on TDM in various scenarios. Proactive TDM with tumor necrosis factor-antagonist monotherapy is recommended as an alternative to the combination of tumor necrosis factor-antagonists with…

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